Share this content in WeChat
Technical Article
An imaging study of three-dimensional simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage of whole brain based on compressed sensing
ZHANG Yukun  ZHANG Haonan  CHANG Peipei  LIU Na  LUO Hedan  HU Shuai  WANG Nan  SONG Qingwei  MIAO Yanwei 

Cite this article as: Zhang YK, Zhang HN, Chang PP, et al. An imaging study of three-dimensional simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage of whole brain based on compressed sensing[J]. Chin J Magn Reson Imaging, 2022, 13(12): 124-129. DOI:10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.12.021.

[Abstract] Objective To optimize three-dimensional simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (3D SNAP) based on compressed sensing (CS 3D SNAP), we performed different acceleration factors (AF) to obtain high-quality magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and vascular wall images capable of whole brain coverage in a short time.Material and Methods: Thirty healthy volunteers were prospectively recruited in this study. Ten volunteers were performed the pre-scan for selecting a precise head three-dimensional simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (3D SNAP) parameter. Twenty volunteers were scanned with conventional 3D SNAP and CS 3D SNAP (AF=2, 2.5, 3, 4, or 5) on the basis of the optimized pre-scan sequence. Two radiologists delineated the region of interest of vascular lumen, vascular wall, and adjacent white matter on the original images, then measured the signal intensity and the standard deviation. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of vascular lumen, the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) and the CTR efficiency (CTReff) of the vascular wall were further calculated. The image quality of each dataset were scored subjectively by two radiologists. The consistency of measurements and subjective scores of the two observers were analyzed using Kappa and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) test. Compare and analyze the differences in measurement parameters and subjective scores between different AF.Results The measured data and subjective scores of the two observers were in good consistent (Kappa: 0.568-0.884, ICC: 0.602-0.968). When CS AF is greater than or equal to 4, the SNR, CNR of vascular lumen and subjective scores were significantly different from those of conventional 3D SNAP (P<0.05). When CS AF is equal to 2.5, 3, 4, or 5, the CTReff of vascular wall were significantly different compared with conventional 3D SNAP (P<0.05).Conclusions 3D CS SNAP can obtain whole cerebrovascular MRA and vascular wall images in a relatively short period of time, and a single scan provides diagnostic information on both vascular morphology and plaque in the vessel wall. AF of 2 is recommended for mild and moderate disease patients and AF of 3 is recommended for critical patients.
[Keywords] magnetic resonance imaging;compressed sensing;three-dimensional simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage;intraplaque hemorrhage;magnetic resonance angiography;high resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging

ZHANG Yukun   ZHANG Haonan   CHANG Peipei   LIU Na   LUO Hedan   HU Shuai   WANG Nan   SONG Qingwei   MIAO Yanwei*  

Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011, China

Miao YW, E-mail:

Conflicts of interest   None.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Fund Plan of the Dalian Science and Technology Innovation (No. 2020JJ7SN075).
Received  2022-05-16
Accepted  2022-11-29
DOI: 10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.12.021
Cite this article as: Zhang YK, Zhang HN, Chang PP, et al. An imaging study of three-dimensional simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage of whole brain based on compressed sensing[J]. Chin J Magn Reson Imaging, 2022, 13(12): 124-129. DOI:10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.12.021.

Lehman VT, Brinjikji W, Kallmes DF, et al. Clinical interpretation of high-resolution vessel wall MRI of intracranial arterial diseases[J/OL]. Br J Radiol, 2016, 89(1067): 20160496 [2022-05-15] DOI: 10.1259/bjr.20160496.
Li M, le WJ, Tao XF, et al. Advantage in bright-blood and black-blood magnetic resonance imaging with high-resolution for analysis of carotid atherosclerotic plaques[J]. Chin Med J (Engl), 2015, 128(18): 2478-2484. DOI: 10.4103/0366-6999.164933.
Chen S, Zhao HL, Li JF, et al. Evaluation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque surface characteristics utilizing simultaneous noncontrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) technique[J]. J Magn Reson Imaging, 2018, 47(3): 634-639. DOI: 10.1002/jmri.25815.
Wang JN, Guan MB, Yamada K, et al. In vivo validation of simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraPlaque hemorrhage (SNAP) magnetic resonance angiography: an intracranial artery study[J/OL]. PLoS One, 2016, 11(2): e0149130 [2022-09-01]. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149130.
Wang JN, Börnert P, Zhao HL, et al. Simultaneous noncontrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) imaging for carotid atherosclerotic disease evaluation[J]. Magn Reson Med, 2013, 69(2): 337-345. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.24254.
Gould A, Chen ZS, Geleri DB, et al. Vessel length on snap mra and tof mra is a potential imaging biomarker for brain blood flow[J]. Magn Reson Imaging, 2021, 79: 20-27. DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2021.02.012.
Xiong YH, Ji LX, He L, et al. Effects of levodopa therapy on cerebral arteries and perfusion in Parkinson's disease patients[J]. J Magn Reson Imaging, 2022, 55(3): 943-953. DOI: 10.1002/jmri.27903.
Zhang Q, Chen ZS, Chen S, et al. Angiographic contrast mechanism comparison between Simultaneous Non-contrast Angiography and intraPlaque hemorrhage (SNAP) sequence and Time of Flight (TOF) sequence for intracranial artery[J]. Magn Reson Imaging, 2020, 66: 199-207. DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2019.09.001.
Lustig M, Donoho D, Pauly JM. Sparse MRI: the application of compressed sensing for rapid MR imaging[J]. Magn Reson Med, 2007, 58(6): 1182-1195. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.21391.
Gamper U, Boesiger P, Kozerke S. Compressed sensing in dynamic MRI[J]. Magn Reson Med, 2008, 59(2): 365-373. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.21477.
Zhu CC, Tian B, Chen LG, et al. Accelerated whole brain intracranial vessel wall imaging using black blood fast spin echo with compressed sensing (CS-SPACE)[J]. MAGMA, 2018, 31(3): 457-467. DOI: 10.1007/s10334-017-0667-3.
Li B, Dong L, Chen B, et al. Turbo fast three-dimensional carotid artery black-blood MRI by combining three-dimensional MERGE sequence with compressed sensing[J]. Magn Reson Med, 2013, 70(5): 1347-1352. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.24579.
Ding J, Duan Y, Zhuo Z, et al. Acceleration of brain TOF-MRA with compressed sensitivity encoding: a multicenter clinical study[J]. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2021, 42(7): 1208-1215. DOI: 10.3174/ajnr.A7091.
Zhang XD, Zhu LN, Ma S, et al. A preliminary study of compressed sensing techniques in cerebral MRA[J]. Radiol Pract, 2018, 33(3): 252-255. DOI: 10.13609/j.cnki.1000-0313.2018.03.005.
Sun JL, Liu GQ, Zhang DY, et al. The longitudinal distribution and stability of curved basilar artery plaque: a study based on HR-MRI[J]. J Atheroscler Thromb, 2021, 28(12): 1333-1339. DOI: 10.5551/jat.62448.
Wang JN, Ferguson MS, Balu N, et al. Improved carotid intraplaque hemorrhage imaging using a slab-selective phase-sensitive inversion-recovery (SPI) sequence[J]. Magn Reson Med, 2010, 64(5): 1332-1340. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.22539.
Chen S, Ning J, Zhao XH, et al. Fast simultaneous noncontrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (fSNAP) sequence for carotid artery imaging[J]. Magn Reson Med, 2017, 77(2): 753-758. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.26111.
Li DY, Zhao HL, Chen XY, et al. Identification of intraplaque haemorrhage in carotid artery by simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraPlaque haemorrhage (SNAP) imaging: a magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study[J]. Eur Radiol, 2018, 28(4): 1681-1686. DOI: 10.1007/s00330-017-5096-1.
Liu HN, Sun J, Hippe DS, et al. Improved carotid lumen delineation on non-contrast MR angiography using SNAP (Simultaneous Non-Contrast Angiography and Intraplaque Hemorrhage) imaging[J]. Magn Reson Imaging, 2019, 62: 87-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2019.06.012.
Li DY, Qiao HY, Han YJ, et al. Histological validation of simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage imaging (SNAP) for characterizing carotid intraplaque hemorrhage[J]. Eur Radiol, 2021, 31(5): 3106-3115. DOI: 10.1007/s00330-020-07352-0.
Wang K, Chen H, Ma JX, et al. Evaluation of magnetic resonance SNAP protocol in the diagnosis of carotid atherosclerotic plaque[J]. Diagn Imaging Interv Radiol, 2018, 27(1): 40-46. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1005-8001.2018.01.007.
Chen YL, He L, Chen HJ, et al. Blood vessel and intraplaque hemorrhage simultaneous imaging sequence in evaluation of the integrity of Willis circle[J]. Chin J Med Imaging, 2018, 26(4): 241-245, 251. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1005-5185.2018.04.001.
Candes EJ, Romberg J, Tao T. Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information[J]. IEEE Trans Inf Theory, 2006, 52(2): 489-509. DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2005.862083.
Donoho DL. Compressed sensing [J]. IEEE Trans Inf Theory. 2006; 52 (4): 1289-1306. DOI: 10.1109/tit.2006.871582.
Vranic JE, Cross NM, Wang Y, et al. Compressed sensing-sensitivity encoding (CS-SENSE) accelerated brain imaging: reduced scan time without reduced image quality[J]. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2019, 40(1): 92-98. DOI: 10.3174/ajnr.A5905.
Feng L, Benkert T, Block KT, et al. Compressed sensing for body MRI[J]. J Magn Reson Imaging, 2017, 45(4): 966-987. DOI: 10.1002/jmri.25547.
Konar AS, Vajuvalli NN, Rao R, et al. Accelerated dynamic contrast enhanced MRI based on region of interest compressed sensing[J]. Magn Reson Imaging, 2020, 67: 18-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2019.11.014.
Zhu L, Wu X, Sun ZY, et al. Compressed-sensing accelerated 3-dimensional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: application in suspected pancreatic diseases[J]. Invest Radiol, 2018, 53(3): 150-157. DOI: 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000421.
Chen B, Zhao K, Li B, et al. High temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using compressed sensing-combined sequence in quantitative renal perfusion measurement[J]. Magn Reson Imaging, 2015, 33(8): 962-969. DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2015.05.004.
Li B, Li H, Li J, et al. Relaxation enhanced compressed sensing three-dimensional black-blood vessel wall MR imaging: preliminary studies[J]. Magn Reson Imaging, 2015, 33(7): 932-938. DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2015.03.009.

PREV Study of targeting fibrin polypeptide nanoprobes in enhanced MRI for venous thrombosis
NEXT Meningeal melanomatosis in children: One case report

Tel & Fax: +8610-67113815    E-mail: