Share this content in WeChat
Research progress of MRI on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease in children
LI Ting  CHEN Xin  WANG Haoru  HE Ling 

Cite this article as: Li T, Chen X, Wang HR, et al. Research progress of MRI on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease in children[J]. Chin J Magn Reson Imaging, 2022, 13(9): 123-126. DOI:10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.09.029.

[Abstract] Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD) is a new subtype of idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDDs) of the central nervous system in children, involving the brain, optic nerve and spinal cord. MOGAD requires individualized clinical management and specific treatment regimens, but its clinical manifestations overlap with other subtypes of IIDDs, making clinical identification difficult. MRI has the advantages of high soft tissue resolution and multi-parameter and multi-sequence imaging, which can better display the differences of neuroimaging characteristics between MOGAD and other subtypes of IIDDs, and plays an important role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MOGAD. In recent years, studies on MOGAD have mainly focused on the summary and induction of imaging features of brain, optic nerve and spinal cord lesions based on MRI conventional sequences, while few studies on new sequences and new technologies have been performed on MOGAD in children. Therefore, this paper reviews the clinical and MRI research progress of MOGAD in children, in order to improve the level of understanding of the disease.
[Keywords] children;demyelinating diseases;myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease;magnetic resonance imaging

LI Ting   CHEN Xin   WANG Haoru   HE Ling*  

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing 400014, China

*He L, E-mail:

Conflicts of interest   None.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Chongqing Municipal Education Commission Science and Technology Research Project (No. KJQN202000440); Chongqing Yuzhong District Basic Research and Frontier Exploration Project (No. 20200155).
Received  2022-05-16
Accepted  2022-07-26
DOI: 10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.09.029
Cite this article as: Li T, Chen X, Wang HR, et al. Research progress of MRI on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease in children[J]. Chin J Magn Reson Imaging, 2022, 13(9): 123-126. DOI:10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.09.029.

Ikeda A , Watanabe Y, Kaba H, et al. MRI findings in pediatric neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with MOG antibody: Four cases and review of the literature[J]. Brain Dev, 2019, 41(4): 367-372. DOI: 10.1016/j.braindev.2018.10.011.
Marignier R, Hacohen Y, Cobo-Calvo A, et al. Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease[J]. Lancet Neurol, 2021, 20(9): 762-772. DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00218-0.
Hacohen Y, Banwell B. Treatment Approaches for MOG-Ab-Associated Demyelination in Children[J/OL]. Curr Treat Options Neurol, 2019, 21(1) [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.1007/s11940-019-0541-x.
Jurynczyk M, Jacob A, Fujihara K, et al. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease: practical considerations[J]. Pract Neurol, 2019, 19(3): 187-195. DOI: 10.1136/practneurol-2017-001787.
Wynford-Thomas R, Jacob A, Tomassini V. Neurological update: MOG antibody disease[J]. J Neurol, 2019, 266(5): 1280-1286. DOI: 10.1007/s00415-018-9122-2.
Narayan R, Simpson A, Fritsche K, et al. MOG antibody disease: A review of MOG antibody seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder[J]. Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2018, 25: 66-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.msard.2018.07.025.
Tang J, Peng CY, Xiang YH, et al. MRI characteristics of children with first attack of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody associated diseases. Chin J Med Imaging, 2022, 30(3): 199-204. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1005-5185.2022.03.002.
Armangue T, Olive-Cirera G, Martinez-Hernandez E, et al. Associations of paediatric demyelinating and encephalitic syndromes with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies: a multicentre observational study[J]. Lancet Neurol, 2020, 19(3): 234-246. DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30488-0.
Zhou J, Lu X, Zhang Y, et al. Follow-up study on Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated central nervous system demyelination[J]. Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2019, 28: 4-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.msard.2018.12.001.
Shahriari M, Sotirchos ES, Newsome SD, et al. MOGAD: How It Differs From and Resembles Other Neuroinflammatory Disorders[J]. AJR Am J Roentgenol, 2021, 216(4): 1031-1039. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.20.24061.
Hennes EM, Baumann M, Lechner C, et al. MOG Spectrum Disorders and Role of MOG-Antibodies in Clinical Practice[J]. Neuropediatrics, 2018, 49(1): 3-11. DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604404.
Zhang M, Shen J, Zhou S, et al. Clinical and Neuroimaging Characteristics of Pediatric Acute Disseminating Encephalomyelitis With and Without Antibodies to Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein[J/OL]. Front Neurol, 2020 [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2020.593287.
Fernandez-Carbonell C, Vargas-Lowy D, Musallam A, et al. Clinical and MRI phenotype of children with MOG antibodies[J]. Mult Scler, 2016, 22(2): 174-184. DOI: 10.1177/1352458515587751.
Cross H, Sabiq F, Ackermans N, et al. Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) Antibody Positive Patients in a Multi-Ethnic Canadian Cohort[J/OL]. Front Neurol, 2020 [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2020.525933.
Gombolay GY, Chitnis T. Pediatric Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders[J/OL]. Curr Treat Options Neurol, 2018, 20(6) [2022-05-26]. DOI: 10.1007/s11940-018-0502-9.
Hegen H, Reindl M. Recent developments in MOG-IgG associated neurological disorders[J/OL]. Ther Adv Neurol Disord, 2020 [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.1177/1756286420945135.
Wang J, Qiu Z, Li D, et al. Clinical and Imaging Features of Patients With Encephalitic Symptoms and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibodies[J/OL]. Front Immunol, 2021 [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.722404.
Cobo-Calvo A, Ruiz A, D'indy H, et al. MOG antibody-related disorders: common features and uncommon presentations[J]. J Neurol, 2017, 264(9): 1945-1955. DOI: 10.1007/s00415-017-8583-z.
De Mol CL, Wong Y, Van Pelt ED, et al. The clinical spectrum and incidence of anti-MOG-associated acquired demyelinating syndromes in children and adults[J]. Mult Scler, 2020, 26(7): 806-814. DOI: 10.1177/1352458519845112.
Santoro JD, Chitnis T. Diagnostic Considerations in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and the Interface with MOG Antibody[J]. Neuropediatrics, 2019, 50(5): 273-279. DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1693152.
Salama S, Khan M, Pardo S, et al. MOG antibody-associated encephalomyelitis/encephalitis[J]. Mult Scler, 2019, 25(11): 1427-1433. DOI: 10.1177/1352458519837705.
Baumann M, Sahin K, Lechner C, et al. Clinical and neuroradiological differences of paediatric acute disseminating encephalomyelitis with and without antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein[J]. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2015, 86(3): 265-272. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2014-308346.
Koc G, Bayram N, Guven AS, et al. Anti-MOG Antibody Seropositive Neuromyelitis Optica: A Rare Pediatric Case[J]. Noro Psikiyatr Ars, 2020, 57(3): 257-260. DOI: 10.29399/npa.22766.
Tutmaher MS, Chen DF, Hallman-Cooper J, et al. A Stroke Mimic: Anti-MOG Antibody-Associated Disorder Presenting as Acute Hemiparesis[J]. Pediatr Neurol, 2020, 108: 123-125. DOI: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.02.009.
Tian F, Liu X, Yang C, et al. MOG antibody-positive cerebral cortical encephalitis: Two case reports and literature review[J]. Int J Dev Neurosci, 2021, 81(4): 342-351. DOI: 10.1002/jdn.10106.
Baumann M, Bartels F, Finke C, et al. E.U. paediatric MOG consortium consensus: Part 2-Neuroimaging features of paediatric myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorders[J]. Eur J Paediatr Neurol, 2020, 29: 14-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.10.002.
Winter A, Chalisz B. MRI Characteristics of NMO, MOG and MS Related Optic Neuritis[J]. Semin Ophthalmol, 2020, 35(7-8): 333-342. DOI: 10.1080/08820538.2020.1866027.
Chen JJ, Bhatti MT. Clinical phenotype, radiological features, and treatment of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-immunoglobulin G (MOG-IgG) optic neuritis[J]. Curr Opin Neurol, 2020, 33(1): 47-54. DOI: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000766.
Salama S, Khan M, Shanechi A, et al. MRI differences between MOG antibody disease and AQP4 NMOSD[J]. Mult Scler, 2020, 26(14): 1854-1865. DOI: 10.1177/1352458519893093.
Li Y, Liu X, Wang J, et al. Clinical Features and Imaging Findings of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein-IgG-Associated Disorder (MOGAD)[J/OL]. Front Aging Neurosci, 2022 [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2022.850743.
Tajfirouz DA, Bhatti MT, Chen JJ. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of MOG-IgG-Associated Optic Neuritis[J]. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep, 2019, 19(12): 100. DOI: 10.1007/s11910-019-1014-z.
Song H, Zhou H, Yang M, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-seropositive optic neuritis in varying age groups: A cohort study in China[J]. J Neurol Sci, 2019, 400: 83-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2019.03.014.
Nurul-Ain M, Khairul Kamal ZN, Wan Hitam WH, et al. Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) Optic Neuritis: A Case Series[J/OL]. Cureus, 2021 [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.14452.
Deneve M, Biotti D, Patsoura S, et al. MRI features of demyelinating disease associated with anti-MOG antibodies in adults[J]. J Neuroradiol, 2019, 46(5): 312-318. DOI: 10.1016/j.neurad.2019.06.001.
Dubey D, Pittock SJ, Krecke KN, et al. Clinical, Radiologic, and Prognostic Features of Myelitis Associated With Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Autoantibody[J]. JAMA Neurol, 2019, 76(3): 301-309. DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.4053.
Parrotta E, Kister I. The Expanding Clinical Spectrum of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) Antibody Associated Disease in Children and Adults[J/OL]. Front Neurol, 2020, 11 [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00960.
Rosenthal JF, Hoffman BM, Tyor WR. CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders: MS, NMOSD and MOG antibody associated disease[J]. J Investig Med, 2020, 68(2): 321-330. DOI: 10.1136/jim-2019-001126.
Costa BKD, Sato DK. Viral encephalitis: a practical review on diagnostic approach and treatment[J]. J Pediatr (Rio J), 2020, 96(Suppl 1): 12-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.jped.2019.07.006.
Liu XY, Peng JT, Jiang HQ, A case of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease misdiagnosed as viral meningoencephalitis. Chin J Clinicians, 2021, 49(6): 754-756. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-8552.2021.06.040.
Rozenberg F. Herpes simplex virus and central nervous system infections: encephalitis, meningitis, myelitis[J]. Virologie (Montrouge), 2020, 24(5): 283-294. DOI: 10.1684/vir.2020.0862.
Stahl JP, Mailles A. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis update[J]. Curr Opin Infect Dis, 2019, 32(3): 239-243. DOI: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000554.
Prasad S, Chen J. What You Need to Know About AQP4, MOG, and NMOSD[J]. Semin Neurol, 2019, 39(6): 718-731. DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3399505.
Kim HJ, Paul F, Lana-Peixoto MA, et al. MRI characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: an international update[J]. Neurology, 2015, 84(11): 1165-1173. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000001367.
Lechner C, Baumann M, Hennes EM, et al. Antibodies to MOG and AQP4 in children with neuromyelitis optica and limited forms of the disease[J]. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2016, 87(8): 897-905. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2015-311743.
Borisow N, Mori M, Kuwabara S, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of NMO Spectrum Disorder and MOG-Encephalomyelitis[J/OL]. Front Neurol, 2018, 9 [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00888.
Banks SA, Morris PP, Chen JJ, et al. Brainstem and cerebellar involvement in MOG-IgG-associated disorder versus aquaporin-4-IgG and MS[J]. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2020 [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2020-325121.
Yousaf T, Dervenoulas G, Politis M. Advances in MRI Methodology[J]. Int Rev Neurobiol, 2018, 14: 131-176. DOI: 10.1016/bs.irn.2018.08.008.
Zhang J, Cortese R, De Stefano N, et al. Structural and Functional Connectivity Substrates of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis[J]. Front Neurol, 2021 [2022-05-16]. DOI: 10.3389/fanur.2021.671894.
Waters P, Fadda G, Woodhall M, et al. Serial Anti-Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody Analyses and Outcomes in Children With Demyelinating Syndromes[J]. JAMA Neurol, 2020, 77(1): 82-93. DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2940.
Igarashi H, Takeda M, Natsumeda M, et al. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)][J]. No Shinkei Geka, 2021, 49(2): 438-444. DOI: 10.11477/mf.1436204411.

PREV Research progress of brain fMRI by acupuncture at Houxi acupoint
NEXT Research progress of new MRI technology in prognosis evaluation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

Tel & Fax: +8610-67113815    E-mail: