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Technical Article
Quantification of the impact of Gadolinium agent on amide-proton-transfer weighted MRI: An ex vivo and in vivo study
YANG Qian  LIU Zhou  ZOU Liyan  LUO Honghong  WU Weixing  JI Hong  XIAO Jiahui  LUO Dehong 

Cite this article as: Yang Q, Liu Z, Zou LY, et al. Quantification of the impact of Gadolinium agent on amide-proton-transfer weighted MRI: An ex vivo and in vivo study[J]. Chin J Magn Reson Imaging, 2022, 13(6): 81-87. DOI:10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.06.016.


[Abstract] Objective To investigate the impact of Gadolinium agent (Gd) in clinical dosage on the amide proton transfer (APT) effect by a designed ex vivo phantom study and in vivo human study.Materials and Methods A phantom was made by mixing a gradient of 24 dosages of Gd-based contrast agent with 10 mL pure egg white in each tube, with reference to the clinical dosage. To verify the reproducibility of the results, the phantom was scanned three times and the scan results were analyzed for consistency. Nineteen patients with brain tumor had undergone routine clinical brain MR scan, in which APT weighted imaging was added before and after the administration of Gd. On an in-house MATLAB platform, APT values were calculated and measured for each tube of the phantom, and different regions of interest (ROIs) of the brain, including peripheral edema, tumor area, white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM). Similarity between the pre-contrast and post-contrast APT map was quantified using cosine similarity. Paired student t-test was used to evaluate the difference in the APT values between the same ROI of pre-contrast and post-contrast APT maps.Results The results of ex vivo experiment showed that the three scans had a high consistency (ICC=0.998), and along with the increase of the MRI contrast agent concentration, the average APT value of each tube in the phantom showed a downward trend. When the added Gd content was less than 1 μL, the average value of APT remained relatively stable and fluctuated around 12% (from 11.61% to 13.42%). However, when the Gd content exceeded 1 μL, the APT value of the egg white was considerably reduced. Until the content reached about 20 μL, the decline rate of APT value gradually stabilized at about 2% (from 1.88% to 2.13%). The results of in vivo experiment showed that for the whole brain tissue, gray matter and weakly enhanced tumor lesions, the APT values not significantly changed between before and after contrast agent enhancement(P=0.18, 0.21, 0.53). For white matter and enhanced tumor lesions, the APT values were significantly increased between before and after contrast enhancement (P<0.05).Conclusions Both in vitro phantom study and in vivo study demonstrated the various impact of Gd-based contrast agent on APT effect, especially for highly enhanced brain tumor, suggesting that it should be avoided to perform APT weighted imaging after contrast enhanced imaging in clinical setting.
[Keywords] magnetic resonance imaging;chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging;amide proton transfer imaging;gadolinium contrast agents

YANG Qian1   LIU Zhou1   ZOU Liyan1   LUO Honghong1   WU Weixing2   JI Hong3   XIAO Jiahui1   LUO Dehong1, 4*  

1 Department of Radiology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital & Shenzhen Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Shenzhen 518116, China

2 Laboratory, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital & Shenzhen Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Shenzhen 518116, China

3 Central laboratory, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital & Shenzhen Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Shenzhen 518116, China

4 Department of Radiology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China

Luo DH, E-mail: cjr.luodehong@vip.163.com

Conflicts of interest   None.

Received  2022-04-29
Accepted  2022-05-20
DOI: 10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.06.016
Cite this article as: Yang Q, Liu Z, Zou LY, et al. Quantification of the impact of Gadolinium agent on amide-proton-transfer weighted MRI: An ex vivo and in vivo study[J]. Chin J Magn Reson Imaging, 2022, 13(6): 81-87.DOI:10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.06.016

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