Share this content in WeChat
Original Article
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with nocturnal enuresis
GAO Tingting  WANG Mengxing  TANG Wei  DONG Liao  YANG Guang  DU Xiaoxia  MA Jun 

Cite this article as: Gao TT, Wang MX, Tang W, et al. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with nocturnal enuresis[J]. Chin J Magn Reson Imaging, 2022, 13(6): 71-75. DOI:10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.06.014.

[Abstract] Objective To explore the mechanism of spontaneous brain activity in children with nocturnal enuresis (NE) by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).Materials and Methods NE (n=37) and healthy controls (n=37) matched by gender, age, and education were recruited. All subjects underwent brain rs-fMRI scanning. The resting-state data calculated the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and degree centrality (DC) of children with NE and the healthy control group. A two-sample t-test compared the differences between the two groups. The DC value and ReHo value of brain areas with differences between the two groups were extracted for correlation analysis with clinical indicators and the score of Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ).Results The results of the t-test showed that compared with the healthy control group, the DC value of the NE group decreased in the anterior cingulate gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus of the limbic lobe; Compared with healthy controls, the ReHo value of NE group in the anterior cingulate gyrus decreased. Correlation analysis showed that the DC value of the parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with the score of abnormal sleep (P=0.045, r=0.256); Correlation analysis showed that the DC value of the parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with the score of CSHQ (P=0.010, r=0.062).Conclusions The study shows that the decrease of local brain function activity in children with NE at rest may be closely related to the pathology of enuresis.
[Keywords] nocturnal enuresis;regional homogeneity;degree centrality;functional magnetic resonance imaging;anterior cingulate gyrus;parahippocampal gyrus

GAO Tingting1   WANG Mengxing2   TANG Wei1   DONG Liao1   YANG Guang1   DU Xiaoxia3*   MA Jun4*  

1 Department of Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China

2 College of Medical imaging, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai 201318, China

3 School of Psychology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China

4 Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China

Du XX, E-mail: Ma J, E-mail:

Conflicts of interest   None.

Received  2022-03-10
Accepted  2022-05-31
DOI: 10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.06.014
Cite this article as: Gao TT, Wang MX, Tang W, et al. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with nocturnal enuresis[J]. Chin J Magn Reson Imaging, 2022, 13(6): 71-75.DOI:10.12015/issn.1674-8034.2022.06.014

Tsai JD, Chen HJ, Ku MS, et al. Association between allergic disease, sleep-disordered breathing, and childhood nocturnal enuresis: a population-based case-control study[J]. Pediatr Nephrol, 2017, 32(12): 2293-2301. DOI: 10.1007/s00467-017-3750-0.
Thurber S. Childhood enuresis: current diagnostic formulations, salient findings, and effective treatment modalities[J]. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 2017, 31(3): 319-323. DOI: 10.1016/j.apnu.2016.11.005.
Zhang J, Gao M, Jiang KH, et al. Study of resting state fMRI in children with primary nocturnal enuresis on degree centrality[J]. Radiol Pract, 2019, 34(10): 1077-1080. DOI: 10.13609/j.cnki.1000-0313.2019.10.005.
Nevéus T. Pathogenesis of enuresis: towards a new understanding[J]. Int J Urol, 2017, 24(3): 174-182. DOI: 10.1111/iju.13310.
Ferroni MC, Chaudhry R, Shen B, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation of the foot: results of a novel at-home, noninvasive treatment for nocturnal enuresis in children[J]. Urology, 2017, 101: 80-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.urology.2016.10.023.
Jørgensen CS, Kamperis K, Borch L, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study[J]. J Urol, 2017, 198(3): 687-693. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2017.04.082.
Anyanwu OU, Ibekwe RC, Orji ML. Nocturnal enuresis among Nigerian children and its association with sleep, behavior and school performance[J]. Indian Pediatr, 2015, 52(7): 587-589. DOI: 10.1007/s13312-015-0680-4.
Miniksar DY, Cansız MA, Kılıç M, et al. Relationship between sleep problems and chronotypes of children and adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and serum GABA, glutamate and homocysteine levels[J]. Chronobiol Int, 2022, 39(3): 386-397. DOI: 10.1080/07420528.2021.2018452.
Gao YJ, Liu XM, Wang J, et al. Analysis of sleep status in children with primary nocturnal enuresis[J]. Beijing Med J, 2021, 43(11): 1070-1075. DOI: 10.15932/j.0253-9713.2021.11.007.
von Gontard A, Mattheus H, Friese-Jaworsky J, et al. Incontinence and sleep disturbances in young children: a population-based study[J]. Neurourol Urodyn, 2022, 41(2): 633-642. DOI: 10.1002/nau.24866.
Claeys EHI, Mantingh T, Morrens M, et al. Resting-state fMRI in depressive and (hypo)manic mood states in bipolar disorders: a systematic review[J]. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 2022, 113: 110465. DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110465.
Zhao C, Huang WJ, Feng F, et al. Abnormal characterization of dynamic functional connectivity in Alzheimer's disease[J]. Neural Regen Res, 2022, 17(9): 2014-2021. DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.332161.
Fan LL, Yu M, Pinkham A, et al. Aberrant large-scale brain modules in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia[J]. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 2022, 113: 110461. DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110461.
Teng CJ, Liu TC, Zhang N, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy may rehabilitate abnormally functional communication pattern among the triple-network in major depressive disorder: a follow-up study[J]. J Affect Disord, 2022, 304: 28-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.02.050.
Zheng XY, Sun JW, Lv YT, et al. Frequency-specific alterations of the resting-state BOLD signals in nocturnal enuresis: an fMRI Study[J]. Sci Rep, 2021, 11(1): 12042. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-90546-3.
Zhu W, Che YY, Wang Y, et al. Study on neuropathological mechanisms of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in children using cerebral resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging[J]. Sci Rep, 2019, 9(1): 19141. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-55541-9.
Jiang KH, Yi Y, Ding L, et al. Degree centrality of key brain regions of attention networks in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study[J]. Int J Dev Neurosci, 2019, 79: 32-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2019.09.007.
Owens JA, Spirito A, McGuinn M. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ): psychometric properties of a survey instrument for school-aged children[J]. Sleep, 2000, 23(8): 1043-1051.
Tomasi D, Volkow ND. Functional connectivity hubs in the human brain[J]. NeuroImage, 2011, 57(3): 908-917. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.05.024.
Chen J, Xu Y, Zhang KR, et al. Comparative study of regional homogeneity in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder[J]. Am J Med Genet, 2013, 162(1): 36-43. DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32116.
Jiang KH, Ding L, Li HX, et al. Degree centrality and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity in children with nocturnal enuresis: a functional MRI study[J]. Neurol India, 2018, 66(5): 1359-1364. DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.241334.
Uddin LQ, Supekar K, Lynch CJ, et al. Salience network-based classification and prediction of symptom severity in children with autism[J]. JAMA Psychiatry, 2013, 70(8): 869-879. DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.104.
Palaniyappan L, Liddle PF. Does the salience network play a cardinal role in psychosis? An emerging hypothesis of insular dysfunction[J]. J Psychiatry Neurosci, 2012, 37(1): 17-27. DOI: 10.1503/jpn.100176.
Tekin S, Cummings JL. Frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits and clinical neuropsychiatry: an update[J]. J Psychosom Res, 2002, 53(2): 647-654. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00428-2.
Olejarczyk E, Gotman J, Frauscher B. Region-specific complexity of the intracranial EEG in the sleeping human brain[J]. Sci Rep, 2022, 12(1): 451. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-04213-8.
Guan QL, Guo J. Research progresses in resting-state functional magnetic resonance in primary insomnia[J]. China Med Her, 2020, 17(1): 38-41.
Wu YY, Zhuang Y, Qi J. Explore structural and functional brain changes in insomnia disorder: a PRISMA-compliant whole brain ALE meta-analysis for multimodal MRI[J]. Medicine, 2020, 99(14): e19151. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000019151.
Leerssen J, Wassing R, Ramautar JR, et al. Increased hippocampal-prefrontal functional connectivity in insomnia[J]. Neurobiol Learn Mem, 2019, 160: 144-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.nlm.2018.02.006.
Wang ZY, Huo JW, Li JQ, et al. Altered brain activity in patients with chronic primary insomnia: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study[J]. Chin J Med Imaging, 2020, 30(12): 2179-2182, 2187.
Esposito M, Gallai B, Parisi L, et al. Primary nocturnal enuresis as a risk factor for sleep disorders: an observational questionnaire-based multicenter study[J]. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2013, 9: 437-443. DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S43673.

PREV fMRI research on regional homogeneity and functional connectivity changes of brain regions in patients with end-stage renal disease
NEXT Clinical application of high resolution myocardial T2-weighted dark blood sequence based on artificial intelligence assisted compressed sensing technique in myocardial edema

Tel & Fax: +8610-67113815    E-mail: